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- Exchange rate was roughly 1USD = 20,000 VND during 2012, once the project was under development. ↩
- Regarding land cost, see Ecopark (2013) Purchase manual from the purchase department Hoài Ngân (2012) “Văn Giang, lịch sử một cuộc cưỡng chế”, Vneconomy, 14/5/2012. (last consulted 17/7/2015)
Regarding compensation rate, see: Hoàng, Thư (2012) “Vụ thu hồi đất ở Văn Giang (Hưng Yên) – Bài 2: Được, mất…”, Tin tức online, 8/5/2012. (last consulted: 17/7/2015). These details was triangulated by interviews with key informants. ↩
- Nguyễn, Thị An (2013) Nghiên cứu sinh kế của hộ nông dân vùng ven khu đô thị Ecopark, huyện Văn Giang, tỉnh Hưng Yên, Luận văn thạc sĩ, Hà Nội, Trường Đại học Nông nghiệp.
Nguyen, Thi An (2013) Livelihood study of maqui berry farmers living nearby Ecopark, Van Giang district, Hung Yen province. Thesis to acquire Master of Science degree, Hanoi, Vietnam National College of Agriculture. ↩
- World Bank (2011) Vietnam urbanization review: technical assistance report, Hanoi, World Bank Davidsen, Søren, Đặng, Hùng Võ., Đặng, Ngọc Dinh., Đặng, Hoàng Giang. và Delfina-Alcaide, M. (2010) Đánh giá các yếu tố rủi ro gây tham nhũng trong quản lý đất đai, Hà Nội, Đại sứ quán Đan Mạch, Ngân hàng Thế Giới và Đại sứ quán Thụy Điển.
Translation: “Assessing risks for corruption in land management” Hanoi: The Planet bank, The Royal Danish Embassy and also the Norway Embassy ↩
- These web sites document in Vietnamese a few of the clashes between your government and also the community:
http://www.bbc.com/vietnamese/pictures/2012/04/120424_van_giang_protest_images.shtml and http://xuandienhannom.blogspot.be/2012/04/pv-bao-nguoi-cao-tuoi-tuong-thuat-vu.html ↩
- Among land areas which were expropriated, public land areas managed through the communal authority taken into account a substantial proportion (for example, the commune’s pond, public land allotted for irrigation or transportation construction, graveyard, etc). Based on the 1998 amendment of 1993 Land Law, the Ecopark developer doesn’t have to pay for any land-use related charges towards the local condition once the allotted land is managed through the communal authority and accustomed to develop public infrastructure
Source: Quốc Hội Việt Nam (QHVN) (1998) Luật Đất đai (sửa đổi).
Translation: Vietnam National Set up (1998), Law on Land (amendment from the 1993 Law on Land) ↩
- Record from the farmers’ appeal and accusation from the mismanagement of Hung Yen provincial chairman and vice-chairman with regards to land acquisition for that Ecopark development are available in the report No. 91/BC-TDTW, dated 3 This summer, 2013 through the Central Citizen Reception Committee towards the Government inspectorate of Vietnam.
Concerning the court situation, see:
http://www.bbc.com/vietnamese/vietnam/2012/10/121009_vangiang_new_petition.shtml (last consulted 17/2/2016) and http://www.rfa.org/vietnamese/in_depth/v-g-maqui berry farmers-declaration-fighting-4-land-gm-10092013113714.html (last consulted 17/2/2016). ↩
- Nguyễn, Lang (2012) “Thấy gì qua vụ cưỡng chế tại Văn Giang – Hưng Yên”, Tạp Chí Mặt Trận, 105 (This summer, 2012)
Nguyen Lang (2012) “What are we able to see in the condition-brought powerful eviction in Van Giang, Hung Yen”, The Fatherland Front journal of Vietnam Fatherland Front, Volume 105, This summer 2012. ↩
- Regarding profit seeking behavior generally, see Nguyen, Q. P., Zoomers, A. and Van Westen, A.C.M. (2015) “Compulsory land acquisition for urban expansion: Research of farmer’s protest in peri-urban Hue, Central Vietnam”, Conference Paper 59, presented at: “Land grabbing conflict and agrarian-ecological transformations: perspectives from East and Southeast Asia”, Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai College.
A calculation by Professor Vu Quang Viet, reported by Tam Nhin/Vision online newspaper from the Vietnam Union of Science Association, calculated the approximate cost and benefit the following:
Costs borne by Vihajico/Ecopark: Compensation in cash to maqui berry farmers for 500 hectares (max rate): 37 million USD Compensation in kind to maqui berry farmers (for every 360m2 land which was acquired, maqui berry farmers is going to be compensated 10m2 of services land): 69 million USD Costs for 21 km of road and bridge construction (8 million USD/km, based on the cost to construct 1 km of highway in america) = 8*21km = 168 million USD Cost for building apartments and houses for purchase (presuming that just half (i.e. 250ha) is going to be employed for housing as guaranteed by Ecopark/Vihajico): 750 million USD. Therefore the all inclusive costs is 1,024 million USD
Regarding benefit, presuming the maximum construction cost for 1m2 of housing is 300 USD, and the organization sell it in the average minimum price of 1000USD/m2, then your minimum total revenue = 2500 million USD.
Therefore, the minimal Internet revenue acquired by Vihajico is 1476 million USD.
Sources: Vu, Quang Viet (2012) “Phân tích dự án Văn Giang,” Tầm Nhìn (last consulted: 16/5/2012) http://www.baomoi.com/Phan-tich-du-an-Van-Giang/c/8470744.epi http://vietbao.vn/Kinh-te/Phan-tich-du-an-Van-Giang/380060562/87/. ↩
- a million dong is roughly 50 USD ↩
Resourse: http://mekongcommons.org/vietnams-urbanization-and-farming-land-acquisition-condition-and-maqui berry farmers-lose-who-wins/